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Evolutive Immunology: “Nanoplastics are bioaccumulated in fish liver and muscle and cause DNA damage after a chronic exposure”

Evolutive Immunology: “Nanoplastics are bioaccumulated in fish liver and muscle and cause DNA damage after a chronic exposure”

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Environmental Research: Available online 14 May 2022, 113433 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113433 Abstract The extent of the widespread, planetary contamination by plastic waste is difficult to fully capture. Nanoplastics (NPs) are currently in the center of research concerning plastic litter, both for the analytical challenges they pose and for their potential to provoke hazardous effects in organisms. However, there are still many unanswered questions in this multidisciplinary field, with a crucial missing piece being the quantification of NPs in fish tissues after in vivo exposures. Another relevant question that is still greatly unexplored is how a chronic exposure to NPs will affect fish health. This study aims to provide answers to both of these relevant knowled...
Com evoluciona el genoma de les espècies? El paper clau de l’estructura 3D de les cèl·lules germinals masculines

Com evoluciona el genoma de les espècies? El paper clau de l’estructura 3D de les cèl·lules germinals masculines

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Un estudi liderat per la UAB i la Universitat de Kent mostra com l'estructura tridimensional del genoma de les cèl·lules germinals masculines està implicada en l'evolució dels genomes de les espècies. Publicat a Nature Communications i realitzat en espècies de rosegadors, mostra que els esdeveniments cromosòmics que ocorren durant la formació d'òvuls i espermatozoides tenen un impacte diferent en l'evolució del genoma i obre noves vies de recerca sobre l'origen genètic de l'estructura del genoma en tots els organismes. Tradicionalment, l'estudi de genomes de diferents espècies de mamífers ha mostrat que, tot i que totes les espècies tenen un catàleg molt similar de gens, aquests poden estar ordenats de manera diferent per a cada espècie, i poden activar-se i desactivar-se de divers
Genome Integrity and Instability: “Fragile, unfaithful and persistent Ys—on how meiosis can shape sex chromosome evolution”

Genome Integrity and Instability: “Fragile, unfaithful and persistent Ys—on how meiosis can shape sex chromosome evolution”

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Ruiz-Herrera, A., Waters, P.D. Fragile, unfaithful and persistent Ys—on how meiosis can shape sex chromosome evolution. Heredity (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41437-022-00532-2 Abstract Sex-linked inheritance is a stark exception to Mendel’s Laws of Heredity. Here we discuss how the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (mainly the Y) has been shaped by the intricacies of the meiotic programme. We propose that persistence of Y chromosomes in distantly related mammalian phylogroups can be explained in the context of pseudoautosomal region (PAR) size, meiotic pairing strategies, and the presence of Y-borne executioner genes that regulate meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. We hypothesise that variation in PAR size can be an important driver for the evolution of recombi
Protein Folding and Conformational Diseases: “The small aromatic compound SynuClean-D inhibits the aggregation and seeded polymerization of multiple α-synuclein strains”

Protein Folding and Conformational Diseases: “The small aromatic compound SynuClean-D inhibits the aggregation and seeded polymerization of multiple α-synuclein strains”

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Available online 4 April 2022, 101902 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101902 Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, as well as the accumulation of intra-neuronal proteinaceous inclusions known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. The major protein component of Lewy inclusions is the intrinsically disordered protein α-Synuclein (α-Syn), which can adopt diverse amyloid structures. Different conformational strains of α-Syn have been proposed to be related to the onset of distinct synucleinopathies; however, how specific amyloid fibrils cause distinctive pathological traits is not clear. Here, we generated three different α-Syn amyloid conformations at differe
Nanobiotechnology: “All-in-one biofabrication and loading of recombinant vaults in human cells”

Nanobiotechnology: “All-in-one biofabrication and loading of recombinant vaults in human cells”

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Biofabrication, Volume 14, Number 2 https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/1758-5090 Abstract One of the most promising approaches in the drug delivery field is the use of naturally occurring self-assembling protein nanoparticles, such as virus-like particles, bacterial microcompartments or vault ribonucleoprotein particles as drug delivery systems (DDSs). Among them, eukaryotic vaults show a promising future due to their structural features, in vitro stability and non-immunogenicity. Recombinant vaults are routinely produced in insect cells and purified through several ultracentrifugations, both tedious and time-consuming processes. As an alternative, this work proposes a new approach and protocols for the production of recombinant vaults in human cells by transient gene...
Yeast Molecular Biology: “The toxic effects of yeast Ppz1 phosphatase are counteracted by subcellular relocalization mediated by its regulatory subunit Hal3”

Yeast Molecular Biology: “The toxic effects of yeast Ppz1 phosphatase are counteracted by subcellular relocalization mediated by its regulatory subunit Hal3”

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Marcel Albacar,Diego Velázquez,Antonio Casamayor,Joaquín Ariño https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.14330 Abstract Overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase Ppz1 strongly impairs cell growth. Ppz1 is negatively regulated by its subunit Hal3, and Hal3 overexpression fully counteracts the toxic effects derived from high levels of the phosphatase. We show that Ppz1 localizes at the plasma membrane, and that co-expression of Hal3 recruits Ppz1 to internal membranes (mostly vacuolar). This effect is not observed in a catalytically impaired mutant of Ppz1. Disruption of intracellular trafficking by deletion of the ESCRT-0 component VPS27 abolishes both Hal3-mediated relocalization of Ppz1 and normalization of cell growth, without affecting Ppz1
Bacterial Molecular Genetics: “Strain-specific interspecies interactions between co-isolated pairs of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with tracheobronchitis or bronchial colonization”

Bacterial Molecular Genetics: “Strain-specific interspecies interactions between co-isolated pairs of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with tracheobronchitis or bronchial colonization”

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Scientific Reports volume 12, Article number: 3374 (2022) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-07018-5 Abstract Dual species interactions in co-isolated pairs of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with tracheobronchitis or bronchial colonization were examined. The genetic and phenotypic diversity between the isolates was high making the interactions detected strain-specific. Despite this, and the clinical origin of the strains, some interactions were common between some co-isolated pairs. For most pairs, P. aeruginosa exoproducts affected biofilm formation and reduced growth in vitro in its S. aureus counterpart. Conversely, S. aureus did not impair biofilm formation and stimulated swarming motility in P. aeruginosa. Co-culture in a m
Noves troballes sobre els particulars cromosomes sexuals dels marsupials

Noves troballes sobre els particulars cromosomes sexuals dels marsupials

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Un estudi liderat per investigadores de la UAB (IBB) aporta noves dades sobre el comportament dels cromosomes sexuals en les cèl·lules precursores dels espermatozoides dels marsupials, inclòs un mecanisme relacionat amb l’allargament dels telòmers inèdit fins ara en els cromosomes d'altres mamífers. Els resultats de l'estudi, publicat a PLOS Genetics, suposen un avanç en el coneixement de la funció de l'organització del genoma de les espècies. Un equip de recerca internacional liderat per la UAB ha descrit nous mecanismes que regulen la formació d'espermatozoides en diverses espècies de marsupials i que difereixen dels descrits prèviament en altres mamífers, com l'ésser humà i el ratolí. L'estudi, publicat a la revista PLoS Genetics, ha estat dirigit per Aurora Ruiz-Herrera, in
Protein Folding and Conformational Diseases: “Computational methods to predict protein aggregation”

Protein Folding and Conformational Diseases: “Computational methods to predict protein aggregation”

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Current Opinion in Structural Biology Volume 73, April 2022, 102343 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2022.102343 Abstract In most cases, protein aggregation stems from the establishment of non-native intermolecular contacts. The formation of insoluble protein aggregates is associated with many human diseases and is a major bottleneck for the industrial production of protein-based therapeutics. Strikingly, fibrillar aggregates are naturally exploited for structural scaffolding or to generate molecular switches and can be artificially engineered to build up multi-functional nanomaterials. Thus, there is a high interest in rationalizing and forecasting protein aggregation. Here, we review the available computational toolbox to predict protein aggregation propensities, identify s...
Nova hipòtesi de recerca per buscar tractaments innovadors contra el pàrkinson

Nova hipòtesi de recerca per buscar tractaments innovadors contra el pàrkinson

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Investigadors de l’IBB i del Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular de la UAB han publicat un article a Trends in Biochemical Sciences en què proposen una nova via de recerca de la malaltia de Parkinson, basada en la identificació de pèptids endògens humans que bloquegen selectivament els agregats tòxics que la causen i que podria portar al desenvolupament de tractaments innovadors contra el declivi neurodegeneratiu. L’any 2021, un equip de recerca de la UAB liderat per Salvador Ventura, investigador de l’Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB) i del Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, va identificar l’LL-37, un pèptid humà amb una de les majors capacitats descrites per bloquejar la formació d’agregats tòxics de la proteïna alfa-sinucleïna (aSyn) i la neur